Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Customer relationship management (CRM) refers to a philosophy and a collection of practices, tools, and strategies that organizations use to manage and improve interactions with their customers. It encompasses the entire customer lifecycle, from initial lead generation and acquisition to ongoing engagement, sales, and post-sales support. CRM systems are software applications that centralize customer data and facilitate communication across various departments within a business.


Retail (B2C):
A clothing store uses a CRM system to track customer purchase history, preferences, and contact information. This allows them to personalize marketing campaigns, offer targeted promotions, and provide more relevant product recommendations to each customer.

Digital Commerce (eCommerce) (B2B):
A B2B software company utilizes a CRM to manage relationships with potential and existing clients. They can track sales interactions, monitor customer support inquiries, and identify opportunities for upselling or cross-selling additional products or services.


The specific functionalities can vary depending on the business needs:

Operational CRM:
Focuses on automating sales processes, streamlining workflows, and managing customer interactions.

Analytical CRM:
Emphasizes data analysis to gain insights into customer behavior, identify trends, and improve marketing campaigns.

Collaborative CRM:
Facilitates collaboration between sales, marketing, and customer service teams, ensuring a unified customer experience.


Improved Customer Satisfaction:
Effective CRM strategies personalize interactions, address customer needs efficiently, and foster loyalty.

Increased Sales and Revenue:
CRM systems can identify upselling and cross-selling opportunities, leading to higher sales and revenue growth.

Enhanced Data-Driven Decision Making:
CRM data provides valuable insights into customer behavior, allowing businesses to optimize marketing campaigns and product offerings.

Improved Efficiency and Productivity:
Automating tasks and centralizing customer information streamlines workflows and saves time for sales and customer service teams.

For instance, a travel agency can leverage a CRM to track customer preferences for destinations, travel styles, and budgets. This allows them to personalize vacation packages, recommend relevant tours and activities, and provide exceptional customer service throughout the travel planning process, ultimately leading to happier customers and repeat business.

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